Changes Introduced by Incoterms 2010

The 2010 incoterms of the ICC (International Chamber of Commerce) came into effect on January 1, 2011 and replace the former incoterms 2000.

The following is a summary of changes introduced with the new Incoterms 2010.

With the new Incoterms® 2010 the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) has made an effort to improve their utilization. We can also observe in this new edition an important simplification effort. Four Incoterms have been eliminated and two new ones have been created instead.

Let us see these changes in the table below, where we can see in bold the Incoterms that have disappeared. There were thirteen Incoterms 2000, among which the International Chamber of Commerce distinguished between maritime Incoterms and polyvalent ones, but all thirteen Incoterms featured in a single list.


EXW Ex works (polyvalent)
FAS Free alongside ship (maritime)
FOB Free on board (maritime)
FCA Free carrier (polyvalent)
CPT Carriage paid to (polyvalent)
CFR Cost and Freight (maritime)
CIP Carriage and insurance paid to (polyvalent)
CIF Cost, insurance and freight (maritime)
DES Delivered ex-ship (maritime)
DEQ Delivered ex-quay, duty paid (maritime)
DAF Delivered at frontier (polyvalent)
DDU Delivered duty unpaid (polyvalent)

DDP Delivered duty paid (polyvalent)

With regard to the 2010 Incoterms, we can see that the International Chamber of Commerce has created two categories of Incoterms, one which can be utilised with any mode or modes of transport – therefore including road, train, air, sea, river and any combination of these; and a second category that refers only to those Incoterms that can be used for sea or river transport.


For any transport mode:

EXW Ex works
FCA Free carrier
CPT Carriage paid to
CIP Carriage and insurance paid to
DAT Delivered at terminal
DAP Delivered at place
DDP Delivered duty paid

For maritime and inland waterways transport only:

FAS Free alongside ship
FOB Free on board
CFR Cost and Freight
CIF Cost, insurance and freight

Pay attention to the following, it is a “stock cube”, it needs reflexion to be able to dissolve and assimilate the whole content:


So, if our company do not fill up whole ships or do not hire space in the hold as it would happen with general cargo, and normally uses containers for sea transport, lorries and other means of transportation, we should not use Incoterms intended for maritime and inland waterways transport.

The good news is that, as from the thirteen Incoterms 2000 four are gone, two new have been created and companies that do not use maritime Incoterms do not have to deal with four out of eleven:


We have gone from thirteen Incoterms to seven: that’s what I call simplification.

Motorcyclist Fatalities on the Decline in CA and Nationwide

California is the most populated state in the U.S., with approximately 37 million occupants. It is also the third largest state in terms of land mass, covering 155,973 square miles.

With the favorable year-round climate in the southern part of the state, the seemingly endless roads and the picturesque scenery, it’s no wonder California is home to more registered motorcyclists than any other state.

With this being the case, it’s not surprising that more motorcycle accidents and related-injuries and accidents occur in California than anywhere else in the country.

That’s the bad news. The good news is that motorcycle fatalities have been on the decline since 2008. After a steady increase in motorcycle-related fatalities from 1997 to 2008, motorcycle fatalities in California have been on the decline ever since, according to motorcycle accident statistics compiled by the California Office of Traffic Safety (OTS). California motorcycle fatalities peaked at 560 in 2008, but dropped to 394 in 2009; almost a 30 percent decrease.

What has happened in California is also mirrored by the rest of the country. According to the Governors Highway Safety Association (GHSA), motorcycle fatalities have fallen nationwide since 2008, – from 5,290 in 2008 to 4,762 or less in 2009 – a trend that continues today.

Reasons for the Decline

Multiple factors play into the rather profound recent drop in motorcycle fatalities, especially in California. Reasons cited by the OTS and GHSA include:

The Economic Downturn: This is certainly not true in all cases, but to many, having a motorcycle is an “extra.” Many motorcycle owners will use their 4-wheeled vehicles for everyday travel, and will reserve their motorcycle riding for recreation. With many people having to tighten their belts budget-wise in the midst of a slow economy, a motorcycle is a convenience they no longer can afford. Therefore, motorcycle purchases are on the decline, and many casual riders are even putting their motorcycles up for sale.

Motorcycle Awareness Campaigns: Great efforts have been taken by numerous groups around the country to promote motor vehicle operator awareness towards motorcycle riders. As any motorcycle accident law firm will attest, almost two-thirds of motorcycle accidents occur because the operator of a four-wheel vehicle failed to yield to a motorcyclist’s right-of-way; many times cutting them off by trying to maneuver in front or around them or not being aware of the motorcyclist at all. The personal injury caseload of a motorcycle accident lawyer is filled with statements and testimonies reflecting this reality.

Development of Motorcycle Safety Programs: Due to steady increase in motorcycle accidents, injuries and fatalities throughout the early 2000s, most states made motorcycle safety a priority by developing state-funded programs to provide motorcycle safety training. In some states, completing these courses allow certificate holders to bypass taking the Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) maneuverability tests when obtaining their motorcycle license. Motorcyclists who pass these courses can also qualify for insurance discounts, in some cases.

Additionally, many states have made wearing safety gear mandatory for motorcyclists. This has also contributed to the decrease in fatalities. Mandatory helmet laws are now in place in many areas of the country. Law enforcement agencies are strongly urged to enforce these laws.

The decline in motorcyclist fatalities can be credited to numerous public and private agencies and organizations that joined forces in an attempt to neutralize the alarming trend that had been developing. With motorcycle safety and awareness now a major point of emphasis in our country, hopefully the downward trend in motorcycle mishaps continues, even when the economy picks back up.

People With Disabilities And Web Accessibility Initiative

These days, no matter where you go, you’re likely to find conveniences and courtesies aimed at people with disabilities: wheelchair ramps, handicapped parking spaces, even audible crosswalk signaling.

But just a few decades ago, many of these conveniences were practically non-existent. It has taken a lot of time and effort to reach a point where things like handicapped parking spaces are commonplace.

The Internet, on the other hand, hasn’t taken nearly as long to become friendly to people with disabilities. Special software and hardware can help people access computers and the Internet who otherwise might not be able to. And the Web Accessibility Initiative provides guidelines for making websites as friendly as possible to people with disabilities.

Disability Hardware and Software

For someone with visual problems, reading words on the computer monitor might be next to impossible. Similarly, someone with motor skill problems might have difficulty using the mouse or keyboard. But there is hardware and software out there designed to help them use a computer anyway, if not in the traditional way.

  • Speech-to-text software. There are a number of programs available that allow you to speak to the computer and have it converted to text. It can allow people who can’t type to write text, or people who have trouble moving the mouse to give instructions to the computer.
  • Text-to-speech software. For those who have difficulty seeing, text-to-speech software can take what’s written on the screen and convert it to speech. It literally reads the screen out loud.
  • Motion-detection and recognition. Computers are becoming more and more adept at recognizing simple signals and movements. Using a webcam, you can give simple instructions.

Accessible Web Site Design

In addition to all the tools available to people with disabilities, there are established guidelines for making a website more accessible. Although it’s up to the website creator to follow these guidelines, often it just makes the website easier to read and more pleasant to navigate for everyone, not just people with disabilities.

Here are just a few of the things you can do to make a more accessible web, according to the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0.

  • Provide equivalent alternatives to auditory and visual content. Images, videos and recordings should have a text equivalent that accurately describes their content.
  • Create tables that transform gracefully. A table should be easy to view no matter what device your visitor is reading your page from.
  • Design for device-independence. Ideally, your website should be easy to read and navigate no matter what device (cellphone, laptop, desktop, etc) your visitor is using.
  • Provide clear navigation mechanisms. Your navigation bar, site map, links, and other information can make your website much easier to use.
  • Ensure that documents are clear and simple. If your documents have a simple, consistent layout, with clear, understandable graphics, it can help people with certain reading disabilities.

Through the use of software, hardware, and accessible web site design, we can make the Internet a friendlier place for people with disabilities.

The Original Form of Private Villas For Rental in Bali

Bali is an Indonesian archipelago firmly located between Java in the west and Lombok in the east comprised of several islands. They are Bali, Penida, Ceningan, Lembongan, and Menjangan. Bali covers an area of 5,632.86 square kilometers with population nowadays around 3 million +. These averages out to 517 inhabitants per km2. Most Bali inhabitants are Balinese and most of them are Hindu however, the figure of Muslims is steadily expanding through immigration of people from Java, Lombok and other areas of Indonesia who seek engagement in Bali. Denpasar and Badung regency hold the most majority of people. Bali also the biggest tourist destination in Indonesia and already acknowledge for its arts, Hindu culture and tender welcome of its people to foreigner.

Bali climate is tropical with two seasons, a wet and a dry. The dry season, which lasts from April to October, is the most popular time to visit Bali although, there is a special beauty about the tropics in the wet (It is also a way of avoiding the main tourist seasons of May and December). Nowadays Bali also well known for its luxurious private villas scattered around the island. You will be able to find out some of private villas in area like Canggu, Seminyak, Jimbaran, Sanur and Ubud. Other area like Nusa Dua, Tabanan and also east of Bali also available but not like in those 5 areas.

Development of private villas in Bali because of the needs of holidaymakers who more and more varied so in order to meet the needs of such tourist accommodation Bali supply some alternative form of accommodation. The first private villa is a home possess by tourists who want to settle down in Bali. But because of changing times and the increasingly broadened needs of the holidaymakers, the home or villas are leased out to holidaymakers. From then the house is who possess by foreigners well known by the name of private villas and from that time also a lot of investors build Bali villas which is purely for lease purposes or for supporting facilities for holidaymaker accommodation.

Private villas in Bali available ranging from one bedroom to six bedrooms. One bedroom vacation villas usually block for honeymooner or couples and also they coming from a villa compound signifying there are some other vacation villas on the same ground. This one bedroom villas have all the luxury facilities one could reckon like swimming pool even some villas using a jacuzzi. Other facilities like air conditioner, bathroom finished with hot and cold shower and bathtub, fully kitchen appliances, large TV set and also some of them include day by day used of private car with driver for maximum of 8 hours a day. Such a luxury beyond comparing from Bali hotels or Bali resorts. So for newlywed you should seek to reserve vacation villas in Bali today.